• Russia occupies one of the key positions in the implementation of the international ITER Project. First of all, this is explained by Russia's colossal scientific and technological potential in the field of thermonuclear research. Back in 1950, academicians A.D. Sakharov and I.E. Tamm proposed using a magnetic field to confine plasma.

    Later, prominent Russian scientists, led by Academician L.A. Artsimovich, developed and implemented the concept of the TOKAMAK thermonuclear installation (TOroidal Kamera Magnetic Coil), which later became the world leader in research on controlled thermonuclear fusion and remains so to this day. This installation was the basis of the ITER fusion reactor.

    In addition, Russia is the initiator of the ITER project. The idea of building an international thermonuclear reactor was put forward and actively supported by Presidents M. Gorbachev, R. Reagan and F. Mitterrand.

    Today, Russia, thanks to its participation in the Project, has the full design documentation for the ITER reactor.

    Russia's contribution to the ITER Project lies in the manufacture and supply of high-tech equipment and basic reactor systems, which is 10% of the cost of constructing a reactor according to a technical design.

     

    • ТОКАМАК
      Russia's contribution to the ITER Project lies in the manufacture and supply of high-tech equipment and basic reactor systems, which is 10% of the cost of constructing a reactor according to a technical design.
    • Conductors

      Conductors of toroidal and poloidal fields

      The obligation of the Russian Federation is to supply 22 kilometers of conductors based on 80 tons of superconducting Nb3Sn strands for winding coils of a toroidal field (TP) and 11 km of conductors based on 40 tons of superconducting NbTi strands for windings of coils of a poloidal field (pp) of the ITER magnetic system. The manufacture in Russia and the supply of superconductors for the ITER magnetic system will allow for the innovative development of nuclear energy and a number of other branches of technology (electrical engineering, transport, electronics, medicine) to be created on the basis of one of the world's largest industrial production of unique nanostructured superconducting materials in Russia.

      To date, Russia has fulfilled all obligations to manufacture and supply toroidal and poloidal field conductors to the ITER Organization.

      Contractors: VNIINM, CHMZ, TVEL, VNIIKP, IFVE, KI

    • Switching equipment

      SWITCHING EQUIPMENT

      The contribution of the Russian Federation to the ITER project in the field of power supply systems is determined by the delivery package 41P3 with the name: “Current switching devices and energy output from superconducting windings, DC power circuits, including measuring devices”. Almost all equipment to be delivered is unique, i.e. having no analogues in the world market, and requires special development. The most difficult task is to create switching devices that can withstand ultrahigh currents (up to 70 kA) for a long time, turn them off at high voltage (up to 10 kV) and at the same time have high speed. The results of many years of work in this area, achieved by Russian scientists and engineers, served as the basis for the fact that the supply of the entire complex of equipment for removing energy from ITER windings, based on the use of switching devices, was entrusted to the Russian Federation.

      Contractor: NIIEFA

    • Port Plug-in Testing Facilities

      PORT PLUG TEST INSTALLATIONS

      The company "Cryogenmash" (Balashikha, Moscow region) produces four units - a stand for testing equatorial and upper port plug-ins. The equatorial and upper port plug-in (PPTF) stands were designed to test port plug-ins under conditions of heating, vacuum, and functional testing before installing on a tokamak.

      Contractor: Cryogenmash

    • Diverter Dome and Thermal Test

      DIVER DOME AND HEAT TESTS

      The divertor dome is a key ITER system that receives plasma flows. It takes on the plasma flow and protects the system from overheating. The divertor dome is faced with water-cooled tungsten. The divertor dome faces the plasma and protects the ITER systems from heat and particle fluxes. The responsibility of the Russian Federation includes the manufacture and supply of 60 assemblies (100% of the ITER needs).

      The obligation of the Russian Federation also includes conducting thermal tests of ITER components that are facing the plasma. Considering that the plasma temperature is 300 million C ° and the expected heat flux to the divertor plates is 20 MW / m2, the elements in contact with the plasma must withstand these parameters. For testing in Russia, an IDTF (ITER Divertor Test Facility) installation with a 800 kW electron beam was built.

      Contractor: NIIEFA

    • Poloidal field coil

      POLOIDAL FIELD COIL

      The Russian contribution to the creation of the ITER international project includes the manufacture and supply of a poloidal magnetic field coil. The PF1 coil is one of six coils of the poloidal field of the ITER magnetic system. PF1, together with other coils, provides control of the position and shape of the plasma cord.

      The coil is located outside the ITER toroidal magnetic system and provides the poloidal magnetic field necessary to create a plasma, maintain current in it and control the position and shape of the plasma. The choice of Russia as one of two suppliers to the ITER of coils of a poloidal magnetic field is due to the wealth of experience in the development of similar designs and technological equipment for large-scale superconducting magnetic systems.

      Contractors: NIIEFA, SNSZ

    • Upper ports

      UPPER PORTS

      The ports of the vacuum chamber are necessary for the installation of diagnostics, equipment for heating, pumping devices and provide penetration into the vacuum chamber. ports are the first safety barrier, classified as equipment working with radioactive materials under pressure.

      The Russian Federation is responsible for the manufacture of all 18 of the upper ports of the ITER vacuum chamber.

      Contractors: NIIEFA, “MAN Energy Solutions” (Germany)

    • 170 GHz Gyrotrons

      GYROTRONS

      One of Russia's obligations under the ITER Project is the manufacture and supply of equipment for ECR heating and current generation - eight 170 GHz / 1 MW gyrotrons - which are one of the key elements of ITER.

      Gyrotrons are a unique development of domestic specialists. Russia is a recognized world leader in the production of this high-tech system for additional plasma heating. Domestic experts have mastered CVD technology for growing polycrystalline diamond disks with a diameter of 75 mm and a thickness of up to 2 mm for output windows of gyrotrons with a megawatt power level for ITER.

      Contractors: IPF RAN, GIKOM

    • Diagnostic systems

      DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS

      Russian enterprises produce nine diagnostic systems for measuring a wide range of plasma parameters during the operation of the ITER installation. The obligation of the Russian Federation includes the manufacture and supply of the following systems:

      - Analyzers of charge exchange atoms. (One of the most important components of the ITER diagnostic system. Diagnostics is based on measuring absolute fluxes and analyzing the energy spectra of charge exchange atoms emitted by a plasma; it is a direct method for measuring the isotopic ratio in a plasma).

      - Spectroscopy of hydrogen lines. (The basis of her work is the measurement of temporal behavior and spatial distribution of brightness, as well as the shape of the spectra of the visible lines of the Balmer series of hydrogen).

      - Vertical neutron chamber. (Designed to measure the spatial distribution profile of the neutron source and -particles resulting from thermonuclear fusion; the spatial distribution profile of the ion temperature of the plasma; the dynamics of changes in these profiles; total neutron yield and thermonuclear power of the installation; to ensure relative calibration with other ITER neutron diagnostic subsystems).

      - Divertor neutron flux monitor. (Divertor neutron flux monitor allows demonstrating achievement of thermonuclear fusion on a reactor scale by direct measurements).

      - Thomson scattering in a divertor. (The diagnosis of Thomson scattering is based on the effect of scattering of laser radiation by free plasma electrons. The resulting radiation from all scattering electrons is a Doppler-broadened spectral contour whose shape is uniquely associated with function of the distribution of electrons, and the intensity with the electron density).

      - Active particle-spectroscopic diagnostics. (It is used to measure such important plasma parameters as the ion temperature profile, velocity profiles of poloidal and toroidal plasma rotation, as well as the concentration and distribution of light impurities inside the plasma cord )

      - ITER reflectometry diagnostics. (The basis of diagnostics is the physical principle of reflection of electromagnetic waves from plasma. Measured parameters: radial profile of plasma electron density; amplitude and spatial structure of resonant magnetohydrodynamic oscillations; characteristics of small-scale fluctuations of plasma density )

      - Laser-induced fluorescence. (Laser-induced fluorescence is designed to measure the parameters of helium and external impurities in the divertor. The system can also be used to estimate the electron temperature in the divertor).

      - Gamma spectrometric system for the diagnosis of ITER plasma. (Diagnostics is designed to measure the distribution and dynamics of the movement of energetic ions in the poloidal section of the reactor. Monitoring the movement of energetic ions is one of the most important tasks in the diagnosis of ITER plasma).

      Contractors: Institution «Project Center ITER», UTS-Center, FTI, IYAF SO RAN, NRC «KI»

    • First Wall, Blanket Connectors

      FIRST WALL PANELS AND BLANKET MODULE CONNECTORS

           Russia is responsible for the manufacture of 179 of the most energy-intensive (up to 5 MW / sq.m) panels of the First Wall. The panels are covered with beryllium plates soldered to CuCrZr bronze, which is connected to a steel base. Panel size up to 2 m wide, 1.4 m high; its mass is about 1000 kg.

           Russia also committed to manufacture blanket module Connectors, the purpose of which is to fix blanket modules from movement in the radial, poloidal and toroidal directions.

      Contractors: NIIEFA, NIKIET

    • Port plugins

      DESIGN AND ENGINEERING OF PORT PLUGS

      Russian enterprises are entrusted with the manufacture and supply of equatorial port plug 11, lower port structures 08, and upper port plugs 02, 07.08. Diagnostic port plugs are located in the nozzles of the vacuum chamber of the ITER installation and are intended for the installation of diagnostic equipment.

      Contractors: ИЯФ СО РАН

  • DEMO is the next step in the industrial development of thermonuclear energy after ITER.
    DEMO is the first demonstration thermonuclear power reactor-tokamak.
    DEMO is the foundation for the design of the first commercial fusion power plant.

    B.N. Kolbasov, A.A. Borisov, N.N. Vasiliev, V.M. Leonov, G.E. Shatalov (RRC “Kurchatov Institute”), V.A. Belyakov, E.N. Bondarchuk, I.R. Kirillov (NIIEFA named after D.V. Efremov, Scientific and Technical Center "Synthesis"), Yu.A. Sokolov (International Atomic Energy Agency), Yu.S. Strebkov (NIKIET named after N.A. Dollezhal).

    Conceptual design studies of tokamak-based demonstration thermonuclear power reactors have been carried out in Russia since 1991. The most preferred were the concepts of stationary tokamak reactors with superconducting magnets, a single-zero divertor and a large contribution of bootstrap current to maintaining the plasma current. Two blanket concepts were analyzed: a helium-cooled blanket using ceramics (Li4SiO4) for the reproduction of tritium and ferritic steel as a structural material and a blanket in which liquid lithium is used for the reproduction of tritium and as a heat carrier, and vanadium-chromium is used as a structural material -titanium alloy. Conventional divertor targets cooled by water or lithium were selected that can withstand thermal loads of up to 10 MW / m2. Both types of blankets require replacement of interchangeable elements after reaching the integral flux of thermonuclear neutrons, equivalent to 10 MW ∙ year / m2, and the use of beryllium for neutron multiplication. The results of the analysis show the need for additional research before choosing the most promising blanket concept for further development. The article also discusses the problems of radioactive waste management and the return of scarce materials to the production cycle.

    The material is published with the permission of the founders.

    The concept of a demo nuclear fusion reactor DEMO-S (.pdf)